Wastewater treatment purifies water. It is often polluted water that we treat here. The treatment is a lengthy procedure. The biggest perk is that wastewater converts to pure water. We can use this water for many applications. It helps save natural water resources. This article will discuss 7 types of wastewater treatment equipment and the equipment’s applications, functions, and a selection guide.
Wastewater Treatment Equipment:
Wastewater treatment equipment is the machines in purifying wastewater. Wastewater is the water we have used before. This equipment helps to remove harmful substances from the wastewater. Thus, we can release the water into the environment to use it again. The process for purification of water is the wastewater treatment process.
Wastewater Treatment Process:
Here is a detailed explanation of the wastewater treatment process via steps.
- 1. Collection _ Steps of Wastewater Treatment Process.
- 2. Screening and Pumping
- 3. Removal of Grit
- 4. Primary Settling
- 5. Activated Sludge
- 6. Secondary Settling
- 7. Filtration
- 8. Disinfection
- 9. Water Discharge
Wastewater comes from homes and industries through underground sewer lines. The wastewater flows through these pipes to a wastewater treatment plant.
Screening and Pumping:
The screening equipment passes wastewater treatment through it and catches particles. It includes grease, woof fragments, rags, and plastic particles. These visible particles are removed and then disposed of.
In this step, the waste materials that are smaller than the above particles are removed. It includes sand and gravel.
In this step, the settled material from previous stages is taken out via large clarifier tanks. This material is called primary sludge. It is removed from the bottom, and the treated water exits from the top of the tank. The grease may float at the top and be removed from there. The primary sludge is taken to the digesters.
This step involves the treatment of wastewater via biological degradation. The microorganisms consume pollutants, mostly organic ones, and transform them into less complex substances.
The secondary clarifiers remove activated sludge by pumping off from the bottom. Wastewater is now free of microorganism and their waste. The microorganisms removed are sent back to their place for net treatment.
A 10-micron polyester media takes the charge for filtration. It removed the particles from wastewater and washed them back into the sludge.
It is the final step of the wastewater treatment process. This kills bacteria, microorganisms, and viruses. Disinfection occurs when chlorine is used, or the water is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This ensures that the treated water is safe and free from pathogens.
Once the wastewater undergoes treatment, it returns to the environment. We can release it into rivers or oceans. We can also use it for irrigation or industrial needs. It depends on local regulations and conditions.
7 Types of Wastewater Treatment Equipment and Their Role:
Wastewater treatment equipment is the group of tools that carry out the process. Here is the list of 7 types of wastewater treatment equipment and their role.
- Ultrafiltration System
- Tramp Oil Separator
- Lamella Separators
- Paper Bed Filter
- Solid Bowl Centrifuge
- Dissolved Air Flotation
Filtration screens are the most basic type of wastewater treatment equipment. It removes objects like plastic, wooden crumbs, papers, metallic pieces, etc.; in large treatment plants, rotating screens are standard as they do the job mechanically. Yet, generic screens are available for the small treatment process that works manually.
2. Ultrafiltration System_ Type of Wastewater Treatment Equipment.
|Stage of Wastewater Treatment.
|Role of Ultrafiltration System
|No function in the primary stage.
|Removes smaller particles and microorganisms after biological treatment.
|It acts as a fine filter. It also ensures high water purity by removing impurities.
|Filtration and Disinfection
|Contributes to achieving clarity and safety of the treated water.
Ultrafiltration is a filtration system in the wastewater treatment process. It is one of the most applicable types of wastewater treatment equipment. It uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate solid particles from water. It is an effective filtration that removes even smaller particles and impurities.
In the UF system, water passes through a unique and fine filter. This membrane has tiny pores, allowing water molecules to pass through. The membrane blocks larger particles. These may be bacteria, suspended solids, and viruses. It acts like a sieve that only allows clean water while trapping the impurities.
3. Tramp Oil Separator _ Type of Wastewater Treatment Equipment.
|Stage of Wastewater Treatment
|Role of Tramp Oil Separator
|Removes oils and greases for further purification.
|Filtration and Disinfection
A tramp oil separator removes unwanted oils and grease from contaminated water. Industrial processes, such as machining, oils, and fats, can pollute the water. Tramp oils can harm the environment and the performance of the treatment process. Tramp oil separators address this issue by separating these oils from the wastewater.
The tramp oil separator operates using a combination of gravity and mechanical processes. The contaminated water enters the walls. Due to the difference in densities, the tramp oils, being lighter, tend to float to the surface. Specialized skimming devices or suction pumps collect the oils at the surface. It prevents them from mixing back into the water.
Once the tramp oils separate, the cleaner water can continue through wastewater treatment. Removing tramp oils is crucial because they can hurt the process. Tramp oil separators are common in industrial settings where oily wastewater gets generated. It includes manufacturing plants, automotive workshops, and metalworking facilities. By removing oils and greases, tramp oil separators help to protect the environment.
4. Lamella Separators _ Type of Wastewater Treatment Equipment.
Lamella separators remove the suspended particles during the treatment process. They ensure the removal of such particles before the water enters the polishing stage. When wastewater enters the unit, it flows between the flat plates. The waste in the water floats at the top of the leaves, and the rest of the water goes below. These particles are caught in a sludge hopper.
The efficiency of the lamella separator is higher than that of most other wastewater treatment equipment. They have less site footprint and occupy less space than traditional systems. Their waste removal score is more than 95%, indicating their reliability.
5. Paper Bed Filter:
|Stage of Wastewater Treatment
|Role of Paper Bed Filter
|They are not utilized.
|It’s Not involved.
|Removes small suspended particles for further purification.
|Filtration and Disinfection
|Equipment not utilized.
A paper bed filter in wastewater treatment removes solid particles from water. It passes the wastewater through a bed of porous paper material.
A paper bed filter consists of a container with layers of unique paper material. This paper has small pores or tiny holes. It allows water to pass while trapping solid particles and debris. The paper bed is a physical barrier when the wastewater passes from the filter. It captures the contaminants and allows only clean water.
As the wastewater passes the paper bed, the solid particles get trapped within the fibers. Over time, more and more particles accumulate. The filter becomes clogged, and its efficiency decreases. So, regular maintenance and replacement of the paper bed are necessary. It is vital to optimize the filter functions.
The tertiary stage aims to purify the water further before reusing it. The paper bed filter works in this stage. It plays a crucial role in removing small suspended particles. These particles may remain in the water after the earlier treatment stages. The paper bed in wastewater treatment acts as a physical barrier. It captures and retains these particles while allowing clean water passage.
6. Solid Bowl Centrifuge:
|Stage of Wastewater Treatment
|Role of Solid Bowl Centrifuge
|Separates and removes solid particles for higher water purity.
|Filtration and Disinfection
A solid bowl centrifuge in wastewater treatment separates solid particles from wastewater. It utilizes centrifugal force to achieve separation. It is an essential tool among different types of wastewater treatment equipment.
A solid bowl centrifuge has a bowl that rotates and a screw conveyor. The wastewater enters the centrifuge and goes into the rotating bowl. As the bowl spins fast, it produces centrifugal force. It causes the solid particles in the wastewater to move toward the bowl’s inner wall.
The solid particles, being denser, gather on the bowl’s inner wall. It forms a layer or cake. The screw conveyor inside the bowl moves in the opposite direction. It pushes the solid cake toward the exit of the centrifuge.
The solid cake separates from the liquid when it reaches the discharge end. We can remove it for further processing or disposal. The clarified liquid flows out of the centrifuge for other treatments or discharge.
7. Dissolved Air Flotation:
This equipment removes oil, grease, and fats from the water by dissolving air into water and applying high pressure. Wastewater enters the DAF through a header box with many injection points. It also contains pressurized air steam. The header divides the water throughout the vessel’s length and reduces speed.
Next, the water reaches the flotation zone, where microbubbles attach to the surfaces of the particles and bring changes in their density. It causes those parts to reach the top of the unit, and we can skim them off from there. It thickens the sludge and then removes it. The principle of DAF is to lower the velocity of the fluid and the separation of waste particles that are eliminated.
Significance of Wastewater Treatment Process:
Let’s check out the significance of the wastewater treatment process from the following facts.
- Wastewater contains harmful substances. These pollutants can harm plants, animals, and ecosystems if released into water resources. Wastewater treatment removes these pollutants. It makes the water safe before it returns to nature. This helps protect our environment and the creatures that live in it.
- Polluted water can harm fish, birds, and aquatic animals. Treating wastewater causes the removal of debris. It creates a healthy environment for these creatures to survive. Clean water supports a healthy ecosystem. It ensures that wildlife can thrive and stay in their natural habitats.
- Wastewater treatment makes the water we use for daily activities clean and safe. By removing contaminants from wastewater, treatment plants provide potable water. It is free from harmful bacteria, chemicals, etc.
- Water is a priceless resource, and treating wastewater allows us to reuse it. After treatment, we can use the water for various purposes. These include irrigation (watering plants and crops) and industrial processes. We can even use it to save natural water sources like rivers and lakes. Wastewater treatment increases our water resources and reduces the load on existing supplies.
- Wastewater often contains bacteria and viruses that can make people sick. We can end these harmful microorganisms by treating wastewater. It reduces the risk of waterborne diseases. It helps to keep communities healthy and prevents the spread of illnesses.
Industries that Use Wastewater Treatment Equipment:
Wastewater treatment equipment in various sectors treats and purifies water. Here are the top industries that use wastewater equipment.
The textile industry uses significant amounts of water in stages of production. It is one of the top industries that uses wastewater treatment equipment. It results in wastewater with dyes, chemicals, and organic matter. Wastewater treatment equipment is essential to separate these pollutants in this industry. It ensures that the treated water is reliable.
The pharmaceutical industry releases chemicals, residues, etc. Wastewater treatment equipment removes waste. It helps this industry in getting rid of pollutants. This treatment protects the ecosystem and public health.
Oil and Gas Industry:
The oil and gas industry generates wastewater during extraction, refining, and processing. This wastewater often contains oil, hydrocarbons, and other harmful substances. Wastewater treatment equipment is significant in separating and removing these contaminants. It makes the reuse of water safe and healthy.
The mining industry produces wastewater. It can get contaminated with minerals, metals, and chemicals. Wastewater treatment equipment removes these pollutants. It prevents environmental and human health harm.
Municipalities are among the vast industries that use wastewater treatment equipment. This wastewater is generated from households, businesses, and public facilities. This equipment ensures that the wastewater gets treated before reusing. It protects public health and the environment by removing pathogens from the wastewater.
Food and Beverage Industry:
The food and beverage industry produces wastewater with organic matter, nutrients, and contaminants. Wastewater treatment equipment helps remove these substances. It checks that the water meets the best standards. We can reuse the treated water for non-potable purposes or discharge it.
Paper and Pulp Industry:
The paper and pulp industry generates wastewater containing chemicals, lignin, and organic matter. Wastewater treatment equipment separates and removes these substances. It treats water well and does not cause harm to the environment.
Wastewater Treatment Process:
Here is a detailed explanation of the wastewater treatment process.
How to Get the Right Wastewater Equipment for Treatment?
Wastewater treatment is vital to save water. It is compulsory for many industries. Yet, the selection of wastewater equipment varies. Each industry has its specific wastewater needs. The equipment must suit the working of the industrial machinery. Thus, the choice of wastewater treatment equipment must be precise. Here are some general keylines for buying equipment.
- Treatment Needs:
The first step is to find the treatment needs of the industry. Check for the wastewater characteristics. These are volume, composition, and contaminants.
- Research Options:
Next is to research the available options for treatment equipment. There are various types of wastewater equipment. UF, RO systems, paper filters, etc. Each equipment type has its features and advantages.
- Check Budget:
Consider budget when selecting wastewater equipment. Choose wastewater equipment that matches your industry and budget.
- Review Performance and Reviews:
The performance of the selected wastewater equipment must be reviewed. Look for feedback from other equipment users.
- Treatment Objectives:
Set the treatment objectives for the wastewater. For example, some may need to meet specific discharge regulations. In contrast, others may aim to achieve water reuse for processes. The wastewater equipment you choose should align with these objectives.
- Expert Advice:
It is beneficial to consult with wastewater treatment professionals. They can guide you in selecting wastewater equipment. Wastewater experts recommend suitable equipment due to their experience.
Wastewater treatment is vital to save water and reuse it. Wastewater treatment is mandatory for many industries. The equipment for this treatment should be adequate. The process holds natural reserves of water. We can release the treated water to fields or in industrial processes.
The above are the top 7 types of wastewater treatment equipment. It eases the treatment process. The machines drive a series of operations to remove waste from the water. You should select the equipment by considering its nature.
FAQs About Wastewater Treatment Equipment:
Q: What is wastewater treatment equipment?
A: Wastewater treatment equipment is the machines that treat wastewater. It helps remove pollutants, chemicals, and harmful substances from the wastewater.
Q: What types of wastewater treatment equipment are available?
A: There are many available types of wastewater treatment equipment. It includes industrial valves, UF systems, and RO systems. Paper filters, vacuum filters, and centrifuges are some other types. Each kit has its function and removes different contaminants from the wastewater.
Q: How is wastewater treatment equipment selected?
A: Selecting wastewater treatment equipment involves treatment needs, available options, and objectives. The equipment should be able to clean the wastewater. Its characteristics should meet the desired treatment goals.
Q: Can wastewater treatment equipment completely clean all types of sewage?
A: Wastewater treatment equipment can remove many pollutants and contaminants from the wastewater. Yet, it may only clean some types of pollutants. Some harmful or complex pollutants need different treatment methods or advanced equipment.
Q: What happens to the treated wastewater after it goes through the equipment?
A: After treatment, we can use it for non-potable uses in irrigation or industries. In some cases, it may go back into rivers or oceans. But only if it meets the required quality standards and doesn’t harm public health.